Periodontal diseases include diseases affecting the gums and other periodontal tissues (root cement, periodontium and alveolar bone). Smoking, stress, genetic factors, hormonal changes, diabetes and other systemic diseases and osteoporosis also play an important role in addition to dental plaques, which are the main risk factor for the inflammation of periodontal tissues.
Gingivitis and Periodontitis
Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gum, most often caused by dental plaques. It can very rarely be the result of certain systemic illnesses and genetic-developmental abnormalities. Inflammation of the gum occurs after several days (3-4 days) of the presence of bacterial dental plaques on the dental surfaces. It can be seen as a redness and swelling of the gum edge. The gum bleeds even with ordinary mechanical stimuli, such as brushing your teeth or chewing harder food. Later, bad breath occurs. People often avoid these spots because of the bleeding. Soft plaques accumulate and mineralize with the help of ingredients in the saliva. This creates hard plaques (tartar).
Untreated gingivitis in most people progresses to periodontitis or periodontal disease. Inflammation begins to spread from the gum to other structures of the tooth and affects the alveolar bone. In the majority of individuals, this process is a slow and painless one, where more serious issues, such as a loss of bone, and consequently increased looseness of teeth and/or loss of teeth occur over the years. The immune system of about 10% of people responds more distinctly to inflammation, so the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease appear significantly faster. With another 10%, inflammation is limited to the gum and does not progress to other periodontal tissues.
The Importance of the Timely Detection and Treatment
Periodontal disease progresses without major problems and the patient discovers it only at an advanced stage. It is therefore very important that you attend regular check-ups where the dentist can detect the initial signs and start treatment at an early stage of the disease when the bone loss is minimal. Bone loss in periodontal disease is irreversible. This means that even if the progression of the periodontal disease is stopped, we will not recover the lost bone.
The most common cause of periodontal disease is the presence of soft and hard dental plaques on the surface of the tooth. Systemic diseases and certain medicines can increase the body's response to the presence of these plaques. Very rarely, a periodontal disease is caused by factors that are not associated with dental plaques.
Regular Check-Ups are an Important Part of Periodontal Treatment
Periodontal disease cannot be eliminated, but it can be completely stopped and the deterioration of periodontal tissues prevented. After successfully performed therapeutic stages of periodontal treatment, patients are placed in an individually adapted system of regular check-ups. In this way, we have the disease under control and the possible reactivation of the disease itself is quickly stopped and eliminated.